The Bronze Chariots and Horses of Emperor Qin Shihuangs Mausoleum秦始皇陵铜车马In December 1980,two sets of large painted bronze chariots and horses were unearthed 20 meters west of the mount of Emperor Qin Shihuangs Mausoleum. They were listed as No. 1 and No. 2 respectively according to their discovery. They were then enclosed in a wooden coffin and buried in a pit seven meters deep. When excavated, the chariots and horses were seriously damaged due to the decayed wooden coffin and the collapse of earthen layers. No. 2 bronze chariot and horses were found broken int0 1,555 pieces when excavated .After two and a half years of careful and painstaking restoration by archaeologists and other experts, they were formally open to the public on October l, 1983. No. 1 bronze chariot and horses were also open to the public in 1988. The bronze chariots drawn by four horses, with a single shaft, were placed one before the other vertically. The front chariot, i. e. No. 1 Chariot, was supposed to be High Chariot in the ancient time. The back chariot, i. e. No. 2 Chariot, was named Security Chariot. It has a front room and a rear room, between which there is a partition. The front room is for the charioteer and the rear one for the master. In the rear compartment, there is a window on either side of the carriage as well as in the front with a door at the back. The windows and doors could close and open easily. The small holes on the windows were used for ventilation. On top of the chariot, there was an elliptical umbrella-like canopy. The chariot was colour-painted against a white background. No. 2 Chariot was fitted with more than l,500 pieces of silver and gold and other ornaments, looking luxurious, splendid and graceful. Probably it was used for Emperor Qin Shihuangs soul to go out on inspection. No.1 Chariot was equipped with crossbows, arrow heads, shields and the charioteer wore a hat, which shows that this chariot was employed to protect the No. 2 Chariot be- hind. The bronze chariots and horses were the earliest and most exquisitely made bronze valuables. They enjoy the highest class and have the most complete harnessing wares. They are also the largest bronze ware discovered in the history of world archaeology. The excavation of the bronze chariots and horses provides extremely valuable material and data for the textual research of the metallurgical technique, mechanism of chariots and technological modeling of the Qin Dynasty.1980年12月在秦始皇陵西侧20米处，考古发掘出了两乘大型彩绘铜车马，按照找到的顺序，被编入一号和二号铜车马。当时均被挖出在7米浅的坑里，外面用一个木椁装有着。
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